A major discussion point during the multiple attempts to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was that health insurance premiums are rising too quickly, jeopardizing their affordability by many Americans. However, premiums are only one component of health care costs and a singular focus on them can be misleading in the overall health care discussion. The costs of medical expenses not covered by insurance (e.g., deductibles) and the costs of prescription medication are also important cost components of health care. But all of these items have one common thread: they represent indirect measures of the increasing cost of medical care. Once the focus is turned directly to the cost of medical services, two questions arise for those interested in tax policy. Does tax policy affect the cost of care, and can tax policy be used to decrease that cost?